Hazard Identification Analysis (HAZID)

02-01-24 | 3:03


Hazard Identification (HAZID) is a logical, structured methodology for hazard identification and determination of control and mitigation measures, which can be applied very early on in a project to identify both internally generated and externally imposed risks in any process system or work activities. Such early identification of hazards allows the possibility of “designing out” the risk cause at source, or the early implementation of risk reduction/mitigation features before engineering changes become more expensive as the project progresses.

The objective of HAZID is to identify any potential hazards posed by the processing system or work activities. The hazards in the facility can consist of flammable/explosive hazards, electrical hazards, chemical hazards, physical hazards, etc. These hazards may result in injury/fatality to personnel working in the facility or cause damage to property or environmental pollution.


The HAZID process involves several steps as shown Figure 1 1. Since the whole process for gas and condensate processing is complex with numerous process equipment linked to each other, it is simpler to conduct the HAZID study if the process is divided into a few sections with a few process equipment. These sections are commonly known as nodes in the HAZID study.

For each node, a guideword is chosen where the cause of the hazard, consequences of the hazards, and safeguards for the consequences are determined. The associated risk of each hazard shall be ranked according to a risk ranking matrix to categorize the risk level (Low/ Medium/ High).

Based on the ranking, the team shall make further consideration of the existing safeguards to ensure the risk is acceptable. This process is then repeated for other nodes until they are completed.

Figure 1.1: HAZID Process Flow


In the HAZID study, guidewords are used to define the hazards associated with activities in the facilities. The guidewords guide the HAZID team to systematically identify the hazards.


The topic discussed in the course of the HAZID study were documented in HAZID worksheets, which will contain the column headings presented Table 1 1. Mitigation measures and recommended actions were recorded for further actions when it is agreed that the controls in place are insufficient to guard/protect the systems.

Table 1.1: HAZID Worksheet Headings

Column Heading Descriptions
ITEM Reference Number
GUIDEWORDS These are simple words, which are used to qualify the intention to guide and stimulate the thinking process and so discover deviations. A list of Guide Words, along with the likely causes, is given below.
CAUSES These are the reasons why deviations might occur. Once a deviation has been shown to have a conceivable or realistic cause, it can be treated as meaningful
CONSEQUENCES These are the outcome of guide words, should they initiate a hazardous event and damage, injury, or loss.
SAFEGUARDS These are the physical, instrumented, and procedural measures in place or considered necessary to prevent or detect, control, or mitigate the outcome of the guidewords.
ACTION NO. Reference Number: “Node. The action of node”
ACTION These are agreed on suggestions by the HAZID Team for further clarification due to inadequate information available or to overcome recognized deficiencies in the design.
ACTION PARTY Party responsible for addressing each action item.